70 photos and DIY drilling instructions
For the improvement of any suburban economy requires water. It is needed for construction work, for landscaping the territory and just for personal needs.
But what if there is no centralized water supply system on the plot? The output will be an autonomously organized object — a well or a well. The difference between them lies in the depth of aquifers, service life and cost. The preferred option is to install water wells.
Brief content of the article:
Types of wells
A borehole is a special structure (a working or a cavity in the bowels of the earth) of a cylindrical shape, with a length much greater than the diameter.
Devices are divided according to the depth and method of penetration. The depth of the well is determined by the location of the aquifers and the required fluid quality. Based on the terrain, aquifers are located in the earth’s crust in different ways.
If the landscape is flat, then with a high probability the water lies around the entire perimeter. In the presence of hills, it is recommended to drill in the lowlands. The classification of structures contains several varieties.
First implemented by the British engineer Norton in the 19th century. The maximum depth reaches 10-15m. The design consists of a set of pipes with a diameter of up to 60 mm, which are assembled together by a threaded connection. At the end of the last link is a «wellpoint».
This is a sharp tip that performs several functions: it breaks through the soil when installing a well and purifies water from large fractions and polluting particles. Installation of the Abyssinian consists in raising the pipe with a tripod and driving it into the ground.
The advantages include compact size, the possibility of placement in any free zone, ease of maintenance and low financial costs.
The liquid rises forcibly, in the classical way — with a hand pump. Photos of the Abyssinian driven well are shown below.
Well on the sand
The structure is deepened by 15-40m. The trunk is formed by a pipe with a cross section of 100-180mm. At its end is a stainless filter element welded to the first link of the drill string. The average service life of the product with continuous operation is 15 years.
When silting, contamination of the well, it is washed. If the process did not lead to the desired result, then drilling of a new shaft located near the previous one will be required.
Among the positive aspects, one can distinguish a democratic price compared to an artesian well, a lower content of dissolved iron.
Artesian well (for limestone)
Structurally, it resembles a well on the sand. The main difference is the absence of a filter mesh in the lower section of the pipes and the depth of the source. Water from such structures comes from aquifers located in the thickness of limestone. Thanks to this, it turns out clean, with a small degree of mineralization.
- Performance. Able to provide consumers with liquid in the amount of 1 to 3m3/hour.
- Continuous water supply. The flow rate is not affected by the running time of the pump. With a five-minute or two-hour mode, the debit is the same.
- bacteriological purity. Artesian layers are practically not subject to pollution from the upper layer of soil, sewage.
- Long service life. The operation of a well with one pipe occurs for 20-30 years. When using 2 pipes (plastic is inserted into the iron), it functions up to 50 years.
There is only one significant drawback — the high price.
Drilling technologies for different types of wells
Independent drilling of artesian wells for water is a laborious and complex process. It is preferable to use the services of special organizations. Abyssinian and turnkey sand wells are a completely different matter.
The most popular are screw, rotary and shock-rope types of drilling. All of them are made manually or mechanized. Technologies differ in the way the rock is destroyed and extracted.
Auger drilling is considered to be the most budget option. It is produced using a special screw mechanism — auger. Rotating, the drill crashes into the soil. The destroyed soil is brought to the surface by the blades. Auger drilling limitation — soil type. Only soft rocks drill well. On rocky surfaces, the auger is powerless.
The rotary method will help to drill rocks. The tool is a drill pipe, at the end of which is a cone bit. Receiving rotation from the installation drive, the bit edges cut through the ground. The soil is raised to the surface with drilling fluid, which is pumped into the pipe by a pump.
The percussion rope technology is the slowest of all. The point is to use a bailer. It is a piece of pipe with thick walls. On its upper part there is a cutout for extracting the soil, and on the lower part there is a ball or petal valve. Hitting the ground, the valve opens and captures the soil.
Well construction instructions
- Determine the drilling site.
- Prepare tools: drill (auger, bailer), winch, rods, pump, shovel and casing pipes. Creation of a deep well is impossible without a drilling rig. Its height is chosen slightly more than the total length of the rod.
- Dig a hole 1.5×1.5x2m. Protect the walls of such a recess with boards or plywood. The pit is necessary to prevent shedding of the surface layers of the soil during the drilling process.
- The assembled drilling tool is installed vertically and plunged into the ground. Every 50 cm. the drill is removed from the ground with a winch and cleaned. Drilling continues until an aquifer is reached.
- After detecting water, casing pipes are installed and a caisson is made. A caisson is a chamber for placing a pump. A common material for its construction is plastic, brick, concrete or metal.
- The pumping equipment is connected.
Getting started is not very difficult. The drill easily bites into the soil. But with each new dive, drilling is getting harder. If the drill is stuck and does not rise to the surface, it is recommended to turn it counterclockwise and try to get it.
Choosing a pump for lifting water from a well
The final step in providing the house with water is its rise from the source. Well pumps are responsible for this.
According to the installation site, surface and submersible models are distinguished. The first include devices that work on the principle of suction. They are suitable for wells up to 8m. Surface pumps will be an excellent choice for an Abyssinian well.
For an artesian or filtration well, this type is not suitable. Therefore, it is necessary to purchase a submersible product. When choosing it, they are repelled from the depth of the well.
The passport of each pump contains data on the maximum height to which water can rise. It is better to purchase units with a small margin of performance, i.e. for a well with a length of 60m, select a pump designed for a depth of 70m.
An important point is the automatic protection against idling. If water stops flowing to the mechanism, but the pump continues to work, this may cause overheating. Automation will turn off the power in time and save the pump from breakdown.
By design, centrifugal and vibration pumps are distinguished. The water supply in the first case is carried out by a paddle wheel, and in the second — by an oscillating membrane.
The advantage of vibration machines is their price, ease of installation and repair. But over time, the soil or the casing can collapse from vibration exposure. Experts advise considering vibration units as a temporary option.
The centrifugal pump is safer. It is selected depending on performance, dimensions and maximum working depth.
Photo of a well for water
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Post published: 09.10
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