Country toilet — design, where to place, sizes and features of different types, how to do it yourself?
Properly equipped country toilet (closet) is the most important structure, without which the normal operation of the garden plot is impossible. In modern conditions, this room can be equipped with the latest technology, increasing comfort and minimizing the likelihood of contamination of the territory with human feces.
Country toilet design
In developing countries and sparsely populated areas, people mostly use the simplest pit latrines with minimal construction costs. Wealthy owners of garden plots, for whom design and comfort of use are a priority, are increasingly giving preference to dry closets, peat and chemical devices. Each type of closet has its pros and cons. In addition to the budget, the owner of the estate should take into account other factors, otherwise the most perfect system may become unusable in a couple of seasons.
Criteria for choosing the design of a country toilet:
- Frequency of use.
- For how many people is the toilet in the country.
- The maximum budget estimate for the construction.
- The expected level of hygiene, comfort and environmental friendliness.
Using different design techniques, even a simple closet can be turned into a highlight of your site. Instead of a simple rectangular cabin made of logs or boards, some owners are building an original restroom that looks like a beautiful gazebo or decorative building in a retro style. Consider the original design options for a country toilet:
- Garden toilet of the «Birdhouse» type. The simplest design, the building has a shed roof, minimal insulation. Material for wall cladding — board, corrugated board, sheet slate. Used as a summer dressing room.
- Toilet-hut. The design is distinguished by a gable roof with descents on both sides almost to the ground. The construction takes a minimum of material. The interior is spartan, but the restroom is solid and stable.
- Beautiful country toilet «Teremok». The roof is gable, the side walls are made slightly beveled inward. The architectural form is relatively complex and resembles a decorative hut, easily fits into any landscape.
- Toilet house. The design differs from the «teremok» in strict forms, the side walls are straight and high. Internal dimensions allow you to easily make insulation, install additional accessories.
- Toilet with bath. Often, the owners combine a shower and a toilet in one building, using a common cesspool for sewage. The structure is large and relatively heavy, so a small foundation is desirable.
Where is the toilet located in the suburban area?
The construction of a closet should be taken very seriously. The wrong choice of location for this facility can result in problems with periodic cleaning of the tank, contamination of groundwater, and unpleasant odors. It is advisable to build a toilet on the site in accordance with sanitary standards, especially when using the old structure in the form of cesspools.
Recommendations for choosing the optimal location for a country toilet:
- Removal from residential buildings by 12 m for a cesspool and more than 5 m for a dry closet.
- It is advisable to build a country toilet from the side of a blank wall of the house.
- From the boundary of the site, the structure is removed by 1.5 m.
- Approximately the minimum distance from the wells is 25-30 m.
- Pit latrines should not be located next to a terrace or sundeck.
- When choosing a place for a closet, consider the wind rose.
- The landscape plays a significant role, in the lowland there is an increased risk of flooding the pit with melt water.
- Buildings should not clutter up driveways for a sewage truck. In most cases, the length of the sleeve unwound over the surface does not exceed 4 m, and the remaining 3 m of the sleeve are lowered into the pit.
Types of country toilet
In fact, all existing closets can be divided into two categories — rooms with latrines and systems with removable waste containers. In the first case, it is required to periodically pump out the overflowing tank with a special pump or order the services of a sewer. In the second option, a biological or chemical garden toilet independently processes the accumulated waste into compost or a safe mass that can be disposed of on the site.
Mostly such premises are built of wood or brick. The owners with taste often decorate the booths with decorative material, make them in the form of a beautiful house, a mill or even a carriage. A country toilet with a cesspool has the following advantages:
- Simple construction.
- Building a pit latrine is relatively inexpensive.
- With a large volume of the sewage tank, pumping is rarely performed.
- The pit can additionally be used as a sewer receiver.
- With the use of a cesspool, waste is pumped out quickly and fully mechanized.
Disadvantages of a country toilet with a cesspool:
- The release of an unpleasant odor is felt in the heat, even at a distance.
- Pumping out accumulated sewage requires the cost of paying for the services of a sewer.
- In a small area, a cesspool cannot be equipped if you have your own well or in the case of low groundwater.
- In case of violation of the tightness of the walls, there is a risk of contamination of the soil.
Dry closet at the cottage
The plumbing fixture itself is made of two halves — a toilet bowl (upper part) and a waste receiver (lower part). There are two types of dry closets — mobile and stationary. In the latter case, a country toilet without a cesspool additionally consists of a cabin, therefore it is suitable for outdoor use. Portable bio closets can be installed anywhere or transported in a car.
For the fastest processing of faeces in a biological toilet, chemical reagents and natural components are used. The following substances are used as a basis:
- powder preparations;
Advantages of country dry closets:
- biological country toilet with a toilet comfortable to use;
- simple installation;
- pumping is not required;
- does not absorb odors;
- easy to care for;
- easy to move to another place.
Cons country dry closets:
- In the hot summer, the temperature in the plastic cabin is high, which often provokes the fermentation of waste.
- Cheap plastic booths deteriorate in the sun, lose color and give off an odor.
- The need to purchase special powders or preparations.
- Frequent change of container if a lot of people use the toilet.
- A ventilation pipe is needed to remove the odor.
These plumbing fixtures are a kind of biocloset, for their installation it is not necessary to dig a huge hole and pump out the tank. If cheap appliances resemble a cesspool, then more advanced devices separate waste. Liquid components (up to 75%) are discharged through the pipe into the sewer, so the receiver needs to be emptied much less frequently.
After correcting the need, a person needs to turn the handle to evenly cover the waste with a layer of powder. Special peat enriched with bioenzymes and microorganisms must be purchased at the store. It is used here as a reagent to help turn faeces into usable compost.
Peat country toilet consists of the following components:
- hose for liquid drainage;
- containers where peat for the toilet is poured;
- waste bin (44-140 l);
- ventilation pipe.
The simplified design of such a sanitary device differs little from a standard dry closet. The main difference is the use of synthetic reagents rather than biological substances for splitting feces. Once the bin is full, the chemical outdoor toilet should be emptied by dumping waste into a pit latrine or compost heap. After processing, the substance decomposes, forming a homogeneous safe substance, but it is not recommended to use it in the garden as a natural fertilizer.
From above, the room resembles a standard pit latrine with a small cabin, but digging a pit for sewerage is not required during construction. The powder closet uses a container or a shallow composting chamber located under the toilet seat as a faeces receiver. For the fastest disposal of waste, natural microflora is used, which converts feces into fertilizers. Sewage is required to be “powdered” (sprinkled) with peat substrate, wood ash or sawdust. A dry toilet is recommended for areas with close groundwater.
Dimensions of a country toilet
In the absence of a ready-made plastic cabin, you have to build a house under the closet yourself from suitable materials. A properly equipped outdoor toilet inside the floor measures more than 1.2 m wide and 1.5 m deep. In a standing position, from the head of the tallest person to the ceiling of the restroom, there should be a space of at least 35-40 cm, even with significant angles of inclination of the roof in a hut-type building. On average, the total cabin height is about 220 cm.
What is the toilet made of?
Previously, wood was considered the most common material for the construction of a summer closet. A latrine on the street from a board, beam or log turns out to be airtight, strong, durable. With the advent of modern sheet building materials, toilets made of slate, corrugated board, and plastic have become widespread. The most durable cabins are traditionally made of brick, concrete and stone.
Plastic country toilet
PVC cabins are light and mobile, and do not require a solid monolithic foundation for their installation. The stores have finished products already equipped with an extractor hood and a dry closet of various models. Home craftsmen who want to save a little money can build a frame from timber or metal, and use vinyl sheet siding of a suitable color to line the walls of the closet.
Outdoor plastic toilet options:
- Factory-made plastic outdoor toilet.
- Homemade country toilet from vinyl siding.
Wooden country toilet
The simplest and cheapest solution to making a patio is to use lumber. A temporary wooden outdoor toilet can be made by any cottage owner, even without carpentry skills, from suitable materials. If you want to build a capital restroom, you need to use high-quality boards and timber. It is recommended to install the booth not on wet ground, which leads to a decrease in the durability of the structure, but on a prepared strip foundation.
Metal country toilet
Modern rolled metal is an affordable material, and it is relatively easy to work with it. With the help of a drill, welding, a grinder and fasteners, you can make a country toilet from a profiled sheet even without qualified assistants in a couple of days. It is more convenient to make a frame from a profile pipe, and a toilet seat from wood. The disadvantage of such a structure is that it is uncomfortable to be here in the cold. If you plan to use a metal restroom in winter, then it is better to sheathe the booth with insulation from the inside.
Brick country toilet
To build a building from blocks, the skill of a bricklayer is required, a lot of time is spent on laying, working with mortar. Such a cabin is a capital structure that cannot be moved on the ground without dismantling. A brick outdoor toilet also has incomparable advantages — high durability, reliability, excellent protection against drafts and cold. If you choose the right design for the restroom, taking into account the characteristics of the area and the facade of the surrounding buildings, then it will not stand out much in the landscape.
Country toilet from foam blocks
Compared to brick, this material is much lighter and warmer, it is easy to process, masonry is simple and convenient. It is desirable to protect a street toilet from foam blocks at the finishing stage from the harmful effects of the external environment. The porous wall is inferior in strength to brick or concrete, absorbs moisture faster. At the final stage, the restroom of the blocks is covered from the outside with protective plaster or other facade material.
Toilet bowl for country toilet
Plumbing for a garden restroom has an important difference in comparison with fixtures for an apartment. Drainage here is carried out directly into a pit or waste receiver. There should be no water in the sink, so the knee is not required here. The flooring in the booths is often made of a simple board. In this case, it is advisable to purchase a country toilet for an outdoor toilet from a lightweight material in order to minimize the risk of falling into a cesspool. It is even simpler in dry closets, the seat is included and is the upper part of the product, you do not need to buy it separately.
Do-it-yourself country toilet
The purchase of a factory-made ready-made house for a garden restroom is not affordable for everyone. In addition, if there is a small amount of lumber or brick, such a structure can be erected independently without much effort. The cheapest and easiest way to solve the problem is how to make a country toilet by making a booth from edged boards and timber. The design of the building is not regulated, but the internal dimensions must meet sanitary requirements.
Stages of building a country toilet:
- The depth of the pit is at least 2 m.
- Gravel falls to the bottom
- From above, the pit is covered with a flooring with a hole.
- The foundation is used tape 10 cm high and up to 25 cm wide.
- A cabin is erected above the surface with a door made of suitable materials.
- A wooden booth can be made even in a home workshop near a power source for a screwdriver, circular saw or drill. The construction turns out to be relatively light, several people will be able to move such a house to the required place in the garden.
- Buildings made of bricks or blocks will have to be built directly on the spot.
- A chair is attached to the floor.
Pit under the country toilet
The volume of the sewage receiving tank is determined taking into account the number of residents. For 2-3 summer residents, a pit of 1x1x2.5 m is enough. If it is planned to additionally use it to drain sewage from the shower cabin, then it is better to increase the dimensions. Earthen walls quickly crumble, so it is better to strengthen the sump with brick or concrete. Sometimes plastic containers are used, but their volume is limited by the manufacturer.
The shape of the well for the garden toilet does not play a role, but when using bricks or blocks, it is more convenient to produce rectangular masonry. Often, owners purchase ready-made concrete rings or old tires. In this case, you should dig a round hole of a suitable size with a small margin in diameter for ease of installation. The problem of how to build a country toilet with a cesspool can be solved in the following ways:
- Pit for a toilet from old tires.
- The pit for the country toilet is concrete.
- Brick toilet pit.
How to disguise a toilet in a summer cottage?
For a number of reasons, it is not always possible to install a restroom in a secluded corner of the site. If the closet is located near the house, then it is advisable to decorate it with garden plants or use other decoration methods so that the building does not stand out in the landscape. Consider the simplest options for disguising a country toilet:
- Closet in the form of a decorative house.
- Place the toilet in the garden under the crowns of tall trees.
- Surround the closet with ornamental shrubs.
- Cover the toilet with climbing plants.
- Disguise the restroom behind a stylish fence.