Drainage around the house — what it is, what it is for, drainage depth, features of different types


Drainage around the house - what it is, what it is for, drainage depth, features of different types

Many owners of private houses think about the safety of buildings. To do this, organize drainage around the house and around the perimeter of the site. In order for it to cope with its functions, you need to know how to choose the right design and build it according to all the rules.

What is drainage around the house?

This is a system designed to ensure the organized collection and removal of excess water from the site, which can lead to negative consequences for buildings and plants. It is recommended to plan the scheme even at the design stage of the house. This helps to easily tie the drainage job around the house and place the rain cover up to the blind area. The drainage system around the house collects not only precipitation, but also the flow of groundwater and melted precipitation. Factors influencing the choice of design:

  • the location of the site on the ground;
  • soil composition;
  • position of the site relative to water bodies;
  • average annual rainfall;
  • building density on the site.

what is drainage around the house

What is the purpose of drainage around the house?

The main purpose of the drainage system is the accumulation of melt, rain and excessive groundwater and their withdrawal beyond the boundaries of the site. The creation of such a system is necessary in such situations:

  1. The basements are damp due to the proximity of groundwater.
  2. The structure is located on clay soils or in a lowland.
  3. During heavy rainfall, waterlogging of the soil occurs.
  4. It is necessary to level the site, ensuring the removal of excess moisture.

Drainage depth around the house

In order for the system to perform the functions assigned to it, it must be correctly calculated. The optimal indicator for the depth of laying pipes near a house that is heated during the cold season is 130 cm. The following methods are often used to calculate the drainage depth:

  1. Based on the depth of the foundation. Drainage and storm water around the house will help remove water even before it begins to wash away the building. For calculation, 50 cm is added to the drainage depth.
  2. Based on the depth of soil freezing. Pipes are located below a certain level, the only way to ensure maximum performance in any conditions. 30 cm are subtracted from the freezing depth and pipes are laid.

Types of drainage around the house

The chosen option depends on several factors: the ease of installation, the location of the site and the characteristics of the premises. The following species are currently known:

  • surface;
  • linear;
  • point;
  • deep drainage around the house;
  • open;
  • closed;
  • backfill.

Open drainage system

The easiest way to drain water. The arrangement of this drainage around the house is used in the following cases:

  • the soil is clayey and poorly permeable to moisture, which leads to waterlogging;
  • the site is in a lowland and rainwater flows there;
  • the absence of a natural slope in the relief of the site.

The arrangement of this drainage around the house does not require a diagram. The system consists of trenches 0.5 m wide and 0.6 m deep. The sides are placed at an angle of 30̊. They are dug around the perimeter of the site and direct water into a ditch or pits. Their size is directly related to the area of ​​the site and the intensity of precipitation in the region. So that this drainage system does not lose its efficiency over time, they take a geotextile and overlap it on a ditch. From above, you can sprinkle everything with a layer of fertile soil.

open drainage system

Backfill drainage system

The system is created without the use of pipes. The main goal is to drain the site after heavy rainfall. It is advisable to use such a drainage drain in a small area where there is no possibility of building another type. At the initial stage, ditches are dug, the depth of which is 150 cm. It is important that there is a slope of 3 cm for each linear meter. Crushed stone or gravel is poured into them instead of pipes.

All side trenches must be connected to the main trench, which is connected to the drainage tray, which should be located at the lowest point of the site. So that this system does not quickly fail, it is recommended to make the bottom of concrete and cover it with geotextiles. In addition, if the site is sloping, the drainage trench can be located along the fence, which is located at the lowest point.

backfill drainage system

closed drainage system

In this case, the construction of an entire highway is carried out, consisting of pipes that are located underground. Such a drainage system around the house is invisible, so it is suitable for any site. For gasket

  • trenches are dug along the perimeter with a depth of 30 cm, the slope of the walls for each meter is 2 cm;
  • they are combined into a single system at the point of water collection;
  • dig a well to collect water;
  • fine gravel is poured at the bottom of the trench;
  • spread the geofabric and fall asleep large gravel;
  • carry out pipe laying;
  • gravel is poured on top and covered with geotextile;
  • the final stage is sand with a layer of 15 cm.

Such a water drainage system is created using a pipe made of plastic, PVC or polyethylene. The use of two-layer products helps to self-clean and prevent blockages, which increases the life of the drain. This system is suitable for areas where there is no clay. Otherwise, it will quickly fail due to silting. The variety includes a drainage pit, which is a cavity that is filled with filter media.

closed drainage system

Types of drainage systems

Several types are used in construction:

  1. open. It consists of trenches 50 cm deep. They are located on a slope.
  2. trenches with gravel. The device is similar to the previous version, but sand and gravel are poured inside. They are used to filter water.
  3. Trays with grids. Installed in dug trenches and protect the inside with a grate. The following materials can be used: concrete or plastic.
  4. closed drains. They are located underground. Water can drain not only under gravity, but also be guided by a pump.

In addition to this, there are differences in the installation method:

  • ring drainage around the house;
  • reservoir;
  • wall-mounted;
  • tunnel.

Storm system

This type of drainage around the house has been used for a very long time and we can say that such a system is necessary, since the benefits are invaluable. The system helps to collect water that falls on the ground from roofs, lawns or paths. To implement storm sewers, point water collectors are used — storm water inlets, they collect water only where they are installed. A mandatory point is the installation of filters for purification.

Such a drainage device around the house has the following positive qualities:

  • protection of buildings from premature destruction;
  • the ability to neutralize the impact of dampness on the lower floors;
  • lack of puddles on the site;
  • prevention of erosion processes and waterlogging of the soil;
  • improving the appearance of the site.

storm system

Linear system

Such drainage is used to protect the foundation of the building from flooding. The linear system is a trench buried in the ground. Such a drainage system is designed based on the nodes available for use. Water gets into them from all over the site. The linear system consists of the following elements:

  • gutters;
  • sand traps;
  • drainage grids.

For water intake, concrete, polymer concrete or plastic pipes with perforation are used. Lattices that provide ease of movement of people and equipment around the site can be metal or plastic. Linear drainage around the house is used in the following cases:

  1. The slope of the site is more than 3̊, which, in case of heavy precipitation, can wash away the fertile layer of the earth.
  2. Removal of water from the foundation of the building after prolonged precipitation.
  3. When outbuildings are located below the surface level of the site.
  4. Protection of paths from flooding.

linear system

Point system

This method is used to discharge liquid into sewer systems. Point drainage helps to significantly reduce the amount of work performed when laying surface trays. In modern construction, the following types of devices are used:

  1. Cast iron elements. They have high strength and durability. They have high throughput.
  2. Plastic elements. Their advantages are minimal weight, ease of installation. The elements that are used in the production have a high frost resistance.

Such a drainage scheme around the house has the following advantages:

  • the ability to connect to the existing sewerage;
  • high throughput;
  • no negative impact on the landscape;
  • the presence of a garbage collector simplifies maintenance.

point system

Drainage around the house with your own hands

If there is a desire to make such a system, it is easy, the main thing is to know what stages the creation process consists of. Consider how to make drainage around the house yourself:

  1. They dig a ditch about 1 m deep. It should go into the nearest reservoir or sewer. If not, then dig a well. For its location, choose the lowest place on the site.
  2. Sand, expanded clay or screenings are poured at the bottom. The layer thickness is 10 cm. Everything is rammed.
  3. Fall asleep crushed stone of the middle fraction. The layer should be about 30 cm.
  4. Lay the drainage pipe, after making holes in it that will take the liquid.
  5. To prevent it from clogging, winding with natural or synthetic material is carried out.
  6. From above, everything is covered with a fine fraction of gravel or sand. Layer thickness 15 cm.
  7. At the end, the trench is leveled with a layer of soil.

What kind of gravel is needed for drainage around the house?

The most popular option for use as a system to get rid of excess moisture. The following types of rubble are known:

  1. granite. The most durable, frost-resistant and durable material. The disadvantages include the high cost. Service life is about 40 years.
  2. gravel. Broken rock. The strength is lower, but the price is also more affordable.
  3. Dolomitic or limestone. This gravel for drainage is made from sedimentary rocks. More demanding to use. Service life 15 years.
  4. Secondary. Produced from construction waste. The advantage is the low price, and the disadvantage is the low strength of the products.
  5. slag. It turns out as a result of crushing of slags of the metallurgical industry.

Depending on the particle size, the following fractions are distinguished:

  • screening – up to 5 mm;
  • shallow – up to 20 mm;
  • average – up to 40 mm;
  • large – up to 70 mm;
  • non-standard – up to 120 mm.


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