Drainage well — features of products from different materials, installation and cleaning


Drainage well - what is it, device, principle of operation, what is it for, main types

Draining a well is a difficult process that every owner of a private area with a high level of groundwater must complete. Otherwise, the service life of buildings is reduced, and it will be impossible to grow plants at all. You can solve the problem by using a drainage well.

What is a drainage well?

The product is an element of the system for removing excess water, which is used for its full functioning, and additional monitoring and cleaning of pipes. A drainage well is a device that serves as a water intake for excess groundwater. Visually, it looks like a large container, often round in shape. A properly assembled water drainage design with its help will maintain the desired balance on the territory of a private plot and, as a result, will save the risk of waterlogging the soil with all the negative consequences of these actions.

Drainage well device

Often, after heavy rainfall or rapid melting of snow, a lot of water remains on the site, which does not leave for a long time. To prevent this, drainage wells are being built to drain groundwater. The classic version consists of the following parts:

  1. Tray or bottom — are located perpendicular to the pipe or tee.
  2. Mine — is a corrugated pipe with or without a socket. The average length is 5 m.
  3. Neck — connected to the hatch with an elastic product.
  4. rainwater inlet – made of PVC, PP-b or cast iron.

drainage well device

The principle of operation of the drainage well

There are several types of these devices, each has its own characteristics and scope. Many are interested in how a drainage well works. It is necessary to consider the functioning in the general context of the hydrological infrastructure of the territory. In natural mode, liquid accumulates on the surface. The reasons for this may be rising groundwater and precipitation. In this case, the well acts as a variant of the drive into which water enters. To do this, a communication network must be equipped on the site, which will direct water to the right place.

What is a drainage well for?

The water drainage system is designed to rid the site of excess moisture. There are several reasons why the drainage network is installed on the territory:

  • high occurrence of groundwater;
  • soil composition when natural moisture retention occurs;
  • violation of the balance of the site due to overload with different buildings.

From the following reasons, it is clear why a drainage well is needed:

  1. To minimize the load and pressure on the foundation and walls of the building.
  2. To eliminate the risk of flooding of premises located below ground level on the site.
  3. For dehumidification of the local area.

Types of drainage wells

According to their purpose, drainage wells are divided into:

  1. Drainage inspection or revision well — used to monitor the proper operation of the water drainage system.
  2. filtering or absorbing — Used to store groundwater.
  3. Cumulative — installed in the bottom of the site and equipped with a pump that collects the accumulated water.

According to the material, a drainage well for a septic tank is:

  • plastic;
  • concrete;
  • brick;
  • made from improvised means.

water well

The main function is to collect water and remove it from the site. It is equipped when there is no ravine or reservoir nearby. A drainage well of a conical or other shape is a container in which water accumulates. It is made deep, about 2 m, equipping it in a low-lying place. Structurally, the water intake drainage well consists of:

  • housing inside sealed and corrugated;
  • control float;
  • hose and pump for pumping out excess water.

intake well

swivel well

It is a kind of viewing well. The rotary drainage well is designed to keep the sewage channels clean. They are mounted in places of corner joints of pipes, it is important that all sections of the pipeline can be easily brought to them. The main task of the rotary well is to clean the system from accumulated dirt and sand in difficult transition areas.

A drainage well with a pump is small and made of cheap materials. According to the rules, they are installed at every second pipe joint and at the intersection of several drainage channels. The device of this structure is simple — they dig in a ring and make holes in it for future pipes. Corner joints are made in the well itself.

rotary well

absorption well

This option is used exclusively for draining the site. The second name is filtering, because it is used to clean wastewater from waste. Such devices are suitable for sandy and sandy soils, on which there is a small amount of wastewater. Such a drainage well, conical, round or rectangular, deepens by 2 m, the diameter is an average of 1.5 m. The bottom is covered with any drainage (layer height 1 m), textiles are laid and the earth is covered. The liquid enters the well, is filtered and seeps into the ground.

absorption well

Drainage well material

There are several options that are used to equip a drainage well for high groundwater. The most popular are:

  • plastic – new material for these purposes;
  • concrete — heavy item
  • brick — Requires experience to build.

Plastic drainage well

These products have replaced multi-ton reinforced concrete structures. The finished structure is completely manufactured at the enterprise. The connection with the pipes-branches occurs with the help of rubber cuffs, which maintain the tightness of the structure. A plastic drainage well for a septic tank does not have significant drawbacks. The benefits include:

  • durability;
  • high wear resistance;
  • light weight;
  • simplicity and quick installation;
  • unpretentiousness during operation;
  • reliable performance;
  • acceptable cost;
  • climate resistance.

plastic drain well

Drainage well made of concrete rings

It is a structure of massive reinforced concrete rings for sewerage, which are manufactured at the factory. A drainage concrete well can only be mounted with the help of special equipment that can lift and move them to the right place. The rings should be located exclusively vertically, it is important to seal the joints with bitumen-based mastic or smear with a solution with concrete in the composition. To increase the strength, all elements that are assembled into a single whole are fastened from the inside with metal plates.

The advantages of this drainage well include:

  • long-term operation;
  • high wear resistance;
  • opposition to the destructive actions of the environment;
  • strength and reliability of the structure;
  • work stability.

Among the shortcomings are:

  • big weight;
  • high cost;
  • destruction over time;
  • difficult and expensive installation.

concrete drainage pit

Brick drainage well

It is a high-strength structure, however, high-quality arrangement of a drainage well requires experience in laying this building material or you will need to contact a specialist, which increases the cost. A brick drainage well is endowed with the following advantages:

  • less masonry weight;
  • ease of delivery of building material to the right place;
  • ease of building walls;
  • the ability to withstand heavy loads;
  • the ability to embody any desire in the form of a well;
  • low material cost.

It is not recommended to install a brick drainage well on clay soil; it is better to choose another material option. In addition to the positive aspects, a brick well has some negative sides:

  • instability before seasonal ground movement;
  • the importance of maintaining the masonry level correctly;
  • high porosity of the material;
  • not a smooth surface of the walls;
  • the possibility of laying not with all types of material.

brick drainage pit

Installation of a drainage well

When all the elements are purchased, you can begin the installation of a drainage well. Installation includes the following steps:

  1. The pipe is cut to a size that matches the depth of the previously dug well. At a distance of 0.5 m from the bottom, cuts are made for leading drains and rubber seals are installed.
  2. A drainage ditch is dug, the bottom is covered with rubble and carefully compacted.
  3. The bottom of the pit is filled with cement-sand mortar, and geotextiles are laid on top.
  4. The pipe is lowered into the well. Conduct the connection of drains and sediment.
  5. All remaining space between the ground and the tank is covered with gravel or crushed stone.
  6. A hatch is installed on top, which, if necessary, can be easily removed in order to check the quality of the device and the entire system.

Cleaning the drainage well from silt

You can do this kind of work in the following ways:

  1. Chemical. A drainage well for sewage or groundwater is cleaned using certain reagents. They ensure the destruction of growths due to the reaction of alkalis and acids. The method is characterized by a quick result, but is not used for a septic tank with biofilters and bacteria.
  2. Mechanical. The easiest option that you can do yourself. A suction station is connected, which draws out all the pollution or a large pressure of water is supplied to clean the drainage well.
  3. biological. For purification, special bacteria are used, which are more active than filtration, which leads to the desired result. Often this type is used to equip the drainage system in personal plots.


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