Finnish houses — what is it, features of buildings, pros and cons
Wooden houses have always been popular. One of the new technologies in construction using natural materials is Finnish houses. They appeared in our country recently, but have already found their fans, but not everyone still understands the technology to the end, which is what careless builders use.
What is a Finnish house?
Under this name, high technologies and high-quality construction were combined together with ancient architecture. A modern Finnish house is a common type of cottages, which can be represented by a one-story or two-story building. For construction, glued laminated timber is used, which is made from selected wood, preserving all the best qualities of the material and even improving them.
All details are made and completed in the conditions of factories. The house is assembled according to Finnish technology using a special synthetic sealant, which helps to lay the timber as tightly as possible, eliminating the ventilation of the walls. In addition, the likelihood of moisture getting inside the room and, as a result, cracking and deformation of the material is reduced.
Features of the Finnish house
In our country, the construction technology of these buildings is not well known to many. It will be useful to find out what features Finnish houses made of glued laminated timber have in their homeland. Among all, the following points can be distinguished:
- Typical residential buildings made of timber according to Finnish technology are built one-story.
- The area of the Finnish house is small to make it easier to heat.
- The roof is gabled so that the snow does not linger.
- Large windows are made to provide enough light.
- Finnish typical houses have ceiling heights up to 2.2 m.
- The buildings do not have an underground garage or basement, which increases heat retention.
- To store things inside the Finnish house, many pantries and built-in wardrobes are built.
- The dwellings always have two entrances, one of which leads to the courtyard.
Pros and cons of a Finnish house
Buildings not only look beautiful, but are practical. The technology belongs to the category of prefabricated, in addition, it is also constantly being improved. Finnish frame houses have the following advantages:
- ease of construction;
- short construction time;
- high level of manufacturability;
- design versatility;
- ease of interior decoration;
- high level of thermal insulation;
- environmental friendliness of the building;
- long service life.
However, in addition to the advantages, Finnish houses also have some disadvantages, which are also important to get acquainted with. Among them are:
- the need to care for the tree;
- high cost of services of professional builders.
Finnish house options
To build a private home is a very real task. A wide selection of construction technologies provides for a large number of options, but it is difficult to choose an option that suits all parameters. A Finnish house can satisfy all wishes and requests. Today it is built in two versions:
- Frame-panel. The walls are made from prefabricated modules. The view is distinguished by the fastest assembly.
- Frame-panel. The construction of the house is carried out from small panels, the installation of which resembles the assembly of a designer.
In addition, there are many different projects of Finnish one-story houses, two-story and other different buildings. All designs are endowed with one common feature, which is a high degree of comfort and original style. Thanks to this, a house built according to Finnish technology can compete with the most comfortable apartment in a high-rise building.
DIY Finnish house
The construction of a building using this technology is carried out from ready-made blocks, which means that the process takes a minimum of time. Finnish houses are assembled as follows:
- Pour the foundation.
- Mount the floor frame.
- The assembly of the walls is carried out at the construction site.
- The walls are sheathed on both sides with thermal insulation.
- The floors of the first floor are carried out using OSB boards. A rough ceiling is laid on top.
- The nodes are fixed with metal brackets.
- Install roof rafters. Lay roofing material on a layer of waterproofing.
Finnish house foundation
The construction of any capital premises begins with the foundation. The quality of the foundation affects the life of the building as a whole. For a typical Finnish technology house, a «Finnish stove» is used as the basis. Such a foundation is made in the following cases:
- fast construction is required;
- a durable foundation is required;
- the Finnish house has a «warm floor» system;
- the building is erected on the ground, which freezes heavily.
The foundation for a frame house using Finnish technology is created in the following steps:
- site leveling;
- foundation marking;
- digging a pit;
- laying a sand cushion;
- installation of waterproofing;
- the device of engineering communications;
- slab pouring;
- creating a layer of sealant;
- installation of a plate with a warm floor system.
Finnish house frame
After the foundation has dried, proceed to further work. The frame is made of thick boards or timber. Finnish wooden houses are assembled as follows:
- For the floor, composite beams are used, which are placed every 40 cm.
- For additional adhesion, metal elements are used, for example, nails or self-tapping screws.
- The base is sheathed with plywood sheets. Finnish log houses require that their thickness be at least 1.5 cm.
- Assemble wall frames from edged boards for the first floor. The fastening of the racks is carried out according to the system of grooves.
- All nodes are fixed, and then sheathed with sheets of the selected material.
- Wall frames are installed in a strictly vertical position and attached to the subfloor. Fixation takes place with the help of supports.
- The walls are connected to each other with bolts.
- Interfloor ceilings are installed using beams with a section of 24.5×5 cm and thick plywood is laid.
Finnish house roof
According to the new technology, a two- or one-story Finnish house should have a gable roof. It is built like this:
- The basis of the rafter-beam system is assembled directly on the walls.
- From the inside, it is sheathed with plywood creating a ceiling.
- Rafter shoulders are fixed on the beams and sewn up with a crate.
- The selected roofing material is laid on top.
Insulation of a Finnish house
These works begin only after the structure is fully assembled. The facades of Finnish houses are insulated as follows:
- The outer walls are sheathed with wind protection. To do this, use a film or windproof plates.
- A crate is laid on top, which will become the basis for attaching the skin.
- The interior is also insulated. To do this, use mineral wool, ecowool, cellulose or other material. Insulation is needed not only for walls, but also for roofs with all ceilings.
For indoor insulation, you should follow the following sequence:
- vapor barrier;
- drywall or lining.
Finishing a Finnish house
Upon completion of all work, decorative finishing is carried out. Finnish technology houses need internal and external finishing. Do it with different materials. For interior decoration, any plates are used, it can be drywall, MDF or chipboard on top of which wallpaper is glued, plaster or any other coating is applied. For exterior decoration use:
- timber imitation;
- block house;