Glulam houses — construction stages, painting and interior options
Glulam houses are gaining a new stage of popularity, the construction of which has declined somewhat in the past decade. Such wood has a large number of advantages, but also some disadvantages. It is important to build housing from it in accordance with all the rules, then it will not be inferior in durability and reliability to stone buildings.
Which glued beam is better for building a house?
Having decided to build a house or a summer house from wood, it is important to responsibly approach the choice of the main building material. Glued laminated timber must be selected, guided by its following characteristics:
- Type of wood. The most budget options are pine and spruce. They are great for warm and temperate climates. In regions with high humidity, it is better to buy larch, which does not absorb moisture and becomes stronger over time. When building a large house, you can choose oak. It is more expensive than analogues, but it is many times superior in strength and reliability.
- Another important parameter is the thickness of the beam. It is chosen based on the climatic features of the region and the construction plan. In the Northern regions, they are built only from the thickest material with dimensions of 370 by 370 mm. In the south, with high-quality insulation and a heating system, it is quite possible to get by with a section of 200-250 mm.
- The length of glued beams for building a house can vary from 1 to 12 m. It is selected individually, based on the housing plan.
Pros and cons of a glued beam house
Like any natural material, glued laminated timber has its advantages and disadvantages. Houses from it have the following advantages:
- Thanks to a special production technology, the shrinkage of the house after construction is only about 1%. That is, after construction in a dwelling, you can immediately carry out cosmetic repairs and move in to the owners.
- The second indisputable advantage is the construction time. A frame house made of glued laminated timber from scratch can be reproduced in just 5-6 months. Having certain skills in construction, some owners cope with this task on their own.
- Houses made of glued laminated timber can be built in regions with a humid climate. They are not susceptible to cracking, mold and fungus damage.
- It has a small specific gravity in comparison with stone structures, so there is a saving of time and money on the construction of the foundation.
- High thermal insulation properties.
- Due to the aesthetic appearance and ideal smoothness of the logs, it is possible not to carry out interior and exterior decoration of the building, if desired, preserving the structure of the tree.
The main disadvantages include:
- High cost. Glued laminated timber is more expensive than round logs.
- Lack of natural ventilation of the room due to the use of special adhesives in the production.
Features of a glued beam house
Such wooden structures have their own nuances of construction and operation. Specialists refer to the features of one-story houses made of glued laminated timber:
- No need to use a heat-insulating layer with a properly selected thickness of the source material. This reduces the cost of the construction estimate and construction time. However, some owners still decide to build from a thinner beam, followed by insulation and cladding.
- After proper construction, such housing can not be revetted additionally outside and inside. The interior is very cozy and stylish.
- Glulam houses are built from material of standard dimensions that fit exactly to the building plan without the need for additional cutting.
- The possibility of erecting buildings of various shapes, even the most complex. In addition, baths can be built from such material, because it is resistant to high temperature effects and regular humidity.
Wiring in a glued beam house
Wood, unlike stone, is considered a more flammable material, so the laying of an electrical network in such a house must be carried out according to special rules. There are two types of electrical wiring:
- The fastest way to build a two-story house from glued beams is with the installation of open wiring, which is hidden in cable channels and insulating PVC pipes. With this approach, all wires are placed in special insulation and attached to the wall, which does not always look aesthetically pleasing.
- Concealed wiring in corrugated or PVC pipe. Its installation is often carried out in cement screeds of the rough floor covering. If a second floor is provided, then the installation is carried out in the interfloor overlap.
Ventilation in a house made of glued laminated timber
The almost complete tightness of modern materials requires additional arrangement of special ventilation ducts. The air circulation system in such a building can be:
- Natural, through open doors and windows, vents in the wall. Modern glued beam houses with this technology are not being built due to the lack of air exchange control.
- Forced supply and exhaust with a heat exchanger. Such a system requires financial and time costs for installation, but provides full control of the volume and direction of movement of air masses, their cleaning. In such houses made of glued laminated timber with a garage, the air moves from living rooms to non-residential ones. This prevents the spread of high humidity and unpleasant odors.
Heating a house from glued beams
An important part of the construction of any residential building is the equipment of the heating system. Both budget and elite houses made of glued laminated timber can have:
- Centralized heating with connection to a common boiler room.
- Individual with the use of various heat sources.
The most common option is an autonomous home heating and hot water heating system, which can be powered by:
- Connections to the central gas pipeline. This approach involves significant costs at the initial stage, which are offset by monthly expenses in the future.
- Tanks with liquefied gas (gas tank) which is buried in the local area.
- Electricity, which is often an additional or backup source of heat.
- Liquid fuels: diesel, fuel oil or waste oil.
- Solid fuel, which includes firewood and coal.
- solar collector.
Shrinkage of a house from glued laminated timber
Among all building materials made from natural wood, glued laminated timber, due to the technological features of production, shrinks no more than 1-2% This is equivalent to about 1-2 cm. construction of load-bearing structures, roofs, floors and ceilings. 70% of all deformation occurs in the first three months after construction, and the remaining 30% within three years.
Stages of building a house from glued beams
According to all norms and standards, the construction of a house from glued laminated timber is carried out in a strictly defined order:
- The project is being developed and approved.
- The foundation is being poured.
- The first crown of timber is laid.
- Subfloor joists are installed.
- The box is under construction.
- Roofing work begins after the completion of the walls.
- Installation of individual elements and interior finishing complete the construction.
- At the request of the owner, external decoration can also be carried out.
Foundation for a house made of glued laminated timber
One of the most important initial stages of construction is the calculation and construction of the foundation. It starts, as a rule, in the fall so that it can settle over the winter, and in the spring they start work. When choosing the type of foundation for houses made of glued laminated timber, it is worth considering:
- Features of the soil structure and the depth of groundwater at the site.
- The depth of soil freezing.
- The number of storeys of the building, on which the requirements for the strength of the foundation depend.
The construction of Finnish houses from glued laminated timber involves the use of light and prefabricated foundations, because the load on them in comparison with stone buildings will be small. The most popular varieties:
The walls of the house from glued beams
The main speed of erection of wooden structures is achieved as a result of easy assembly of the box at home:
- The construction of country houses from glued beams is carried out by crowns. Each beam has special connecting elements (thorns and grooves) and ideal geometry, which makes it easy and quick to install. In some situations, it is possible to fasten with special studs or dowels.
- It is permissible to lay layers of thermal insulation between the crowns, if the configuration of the beam profile allows. It can be linen, jute, felt, natural moss.
Roof of a house made of glued laminated timber
Immediately after the erection of the walls, you can proceed to the installation of the truss system and the roof. Often the construction of country houses from glued beams involves the installation of a gable roof. The more complex the geometry of the roof, the more likely it may need to be repaired even after slight shrinkage. The entire course of work consists of:
- Installation of the main supporting structure and additional elements to evenly distribute the weight of the roof.
- Strengthening the strapping with screeds from a bar.
- It is important to mount roofing materials from the bottom up from one of the fronts. For houses made of glued beams, metal tiles and seam roofing are often chosen as roofing.
Insulation of a house from glued beams
It has already been said above that properly built houses from glued profiled timber do not need additional insulation. This is possible only if the timber thickness suitable for the climate of the region is selected. However, if necessary, insulation work can be done outside the house:
- Make a caulk of walls (mezhventsovy seams) and choose the main heat-insulating material. It can be ecowool, polystyrene foam or penoizol.
- Mount the crate and fix the purchased thermal insulation, not forgetting about the installation of wind protection.
- Perform external finishing of thermal insulation or apply a protective composition if necessary.
Interior decoration of the house from glued laminated timber
The final stage of construction is the interior decoration of the house. It may include:
- Installation of stairs, windows and doors. Their placement and geometry are planned at the design stage, therefore, after construction, significant changes can no longer be made.
- Finishing a house from glued laminated timber inside involves laying communications: electricity, water supply and sanitation systems, heating.
- Impregnation of wooden surfaces with special compounds, installation of hydro and thermal insulation.
- Rough preparation for finishing.
- Cladding of walls and ceilings if necessary.
Painting a house from glued laminated timber outside
Wooden structures are distinguished by an attractive appearance, from which they do not require additional decor. You can paint a house from glued laminated timber for several reasons:
- For additional protection against adverse climatic factors: precipitation, UV radiation.
- Change the appearance or update an outdated and slightly darkened facade.
For such purposes, you can choose different compositions:
- Protective impregnations on an organic or water basis. They are not considered full-fledged paints, but they are able to slightly change the shade of the timber and protect it from bad weather and harmful microorganisms, insects.
- There are special coloring antiseptics that change the shade of the structure and have bactericidal properties.
- Paints for outdoor use, differing in shades, degree of hiding power and service life.
Houses from glued beams — interior
The peculiar philosophy of wood requires a careful approach to creating the interior of the room. Beautiful houses made of glued laminated timber are often equipped in the following styles:
- Provence. The French style will be very appropriate both in a country house and in a summer house or cottage.
- Scandinavian style perfectly emphasizes the natural structure of wood.
- Houses and cottages made of glued laminated timber are often finished in the style of English suburban or hunting buildings.
- No less popular is the interior in Russian traditions with an imitation of a stove and other traditional elements.
- The classic style goes well with wood. In such an interior, lacquered floors and antique items look appropriate.
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