Fish pond in the country


If you have the idea to do in the country breeding fish, know that you are thinking in a promising direction.

And let the scale of production be small, in any case, you will have at your disposal a product that is very valuable for health, grown with your own hands in environmentally friendly conditions.
Therefore, all the costs of building a reservoir will definitely pay off, but the simpler you make the design of the pond, the faster this will happen.
However, it is worth remembering that a fish pond is not just a kopanka filled with water. Fish vitally need oxygen and nutrition, as well as the minimum allowable living conditions: the pH of the water, the depth of the reservoir, the volume of water per individual and lighting conditions (shading).

Therefore, the issue of determining the size of the pond is suitable only after choosing the type (s) of fish intended for breeding. By the way, many fish do not get along with each other, while others simply cannot live in a pond.
The most unpretentious in this regard is the “couple” crucian carp + carp. The first one happily explores shallow depths and is able to survive in «puddles» up to a meter deep, provided that there is no overheating of the water. The second lives deeper than two meters and in a limited space quickly gains weight.

Other types of fish are selected with more care, because they are either larger, or predatory, or capricious. You can forget about trout right away — it needs special conditions: clean, cold, running water and a “diet”. Under such fish you need to equip a mini-farm.

If you have not yet made a choice, but are ready to start building a pond and at the same time know the approximate scale of the future reservoir, you can start digging and at the same time study the growing conditions for most heat-loving fish species.
Since it is very difficult to ensure regular water purification in the country (if you do not live there all the time), the pond must be made of such a size as to create natural self-purification processes in it.
The surface area of ​​the pond should not be less than 55 m2. Only at this size will your pond water remain clean. And this is the minimum, which must be supplemented by two more factors: oxygen generator plants and … wind.
If with algae that produce O2 everything is clear, then the pond-wind binding should be considered in more detail.
If you have been living on the site for more than a year, then you probably know what prevailing winds blow in your region.
In order to prevent clogging of the pond as much as possible, it is made of an elongated shape and has a long axis along the line of the prevailing winds. So it is as simple as possible to collect dry foliage (it will be nailed to the narrow part of the coast), brought into the reservoir by the wind.
In addition, the elongated shape will allow the formation of even small, but still waves, which also contributes to the saturation of water with oxygen.
A third of the reservoir must be diverted to shallow water (depth of 0.5 m or less). You will later populate this part with plants and fry will live here.
The optimal (minimum) depth of an artificial fish pond is 2.7-3 m. With this size, you will have a choice of which fish to breed. A meter of depth is enough for breeding carp, but such a pond, under the influence of sunlight, will quickly turn into a swamp.
Make sure that there are no deciduous trees in the immediate vicinity of the fish pond (they have a lot of debris on the surface), however, as well as conifers (the needles will fall into the water, acidifying it). An exception may be «scaly» evergreens (dull and nutkan cypress, arborvitae, some varieties of junipers).
The coastal zone can be sprinkled with peat and planted with lingonberries, cranberries can be planted on the swampy part. A very practical solution: a fish for you — a berry for your wife 🙂
Of the ornamental herbaceous perennials, it is better to give preference to decoratively deciduous ones: astilboides, darmer, fern, geyhera, hosta, Siberian iris, peony, soft cuff, etc.
Ideally, if the bottom of the reservoir is made of natural material. There are two methods for creating a bottom that is close to natural conditions.

The first: the bottom of the reservoir is carefully tamped with a mixture of earth and fine gravel, periodically spilling water.

This option is suitable for a pond with gently sloping walls, but we recommend it for implementation where there are favorable conditions for natural water collection (high groundwater level, lowland, close proximity to a river, etc.).

Not suitable for sandy and sandy soil.

Second: the well-known «clay castle».

Clay will need a lot. Lots of. Therefore, this method is recommended only for clay soils or areas where this material is in abundance.

Clay must be kneaded with water (this important done) and applied to the bottom with a layer of at least 15 cm.

And so three layers, even if your soil is clay. The bottom is covered with a layer of river sand.

Suitable for ponds with stepped walls. The slope of the walls in this case is not more than 600

(and preferably 45) degrees, so as not to swim.

Water in such a clay bowl keeps relatively well, but at first (5-6 years, until the bottom is silted up) and during the drought period, it will need to be topped up.

The water in the clay pond will be cloudy from the constant movement of the fish. This will make it opaque and destroy the vegetation. Therefore, a layer of geotextile (density 300) is laid over the clay bowl and the stone is lined with crushed stone and sand.
Of the artificial materials for covering the bottom, we can recommend a butyl rubber membrane as a durable and reliable material. The simplest and most reliable solution, though one of the most costly in terms of cost.

concrete walls — not the best material for the bottom of a fish pond, however, if the entire surface is covered with a layer of a mixture of soil, sand and stones, then this is quite an acceptable option on sandy soils.

The concrete bowl shown in the photo has an inconvenient shape for planting. In a concrete structure, it is desirable to provide steps, it would be nice with a deepening, where it will be possible to pour a mixture of sand and soil for development by shallow-water plants.

IMPORTANT: fish can be put into the pond only after plants settle in it and a habitat close to natural is created (microorganisms, aquatic insects, etc.).

You can not plant any plants you like in the fish pond. The fact is that in addition to useful functions, they can also deliver a lot of trouble.

Water lilies and capsules — they are good because their wide leaves create shading on the surface and prevent the water from overheating. However, it is worth remembering the speed of their reproduction and the minimum area occupied by one bush (rhizome), and it reaches up to 4 m2.

Such plants are planted not only for beauty and shading of the still “young” pond. Invertebrates live under dense leaves, which are attractive to fish (as food).
Rdest floating or water cabbage is a useful plant in every sense. Leaves float on the surface, creating shading, and the plants themselves are food for fish.

hornwort — a soft deep plant oxygenator that can fill the whole space with itself. It propagates very easily — just throw the cuttings into the water.

Before wintering, the plant dies off, leaving live buds near the bottom surface.

If the plant has grown strongly, its excess is removed with a large net or fan rake.

Turcha underwater oxygen generator, which also decorates the surface of the pond during flowering.

In the summer, rosettes with flowers rise above the surface of the water, and when they fade, they form seeds and sink into the depths.

Turcha thickets serve as a refuge for small fish. Propagated by cuttings immersed in mud.

Urut an underwater plant that looks like an underwater Christmas tree, well, very long sizes.

It is useful in that it releases oxygen into the water and serves as a fastener and refuge for eggs.

Planting it in a pond is simple: lower the cuttings into the water or dig into the ground to a depth of 3 to 1.2 m.

Carefully it is worth planting hard-stem plants of shallow water (sedge, calamus, etc.)

On the one hand, they are good because they serve as a refuge for fry in shallow water, protect the water from overheating and blue-green algae. In thickets of sedge and calamus carp love to huddle.

On the other hand, the dead upper part rots in the water, polluting it.

You can control the reproduction of these plants if you mow (cut) them before flowering, and dig the roots not at the bottom, but place them in special baskets with soil.
Categorically do not recommend plant Canadian elodea, duckweed, reeds in a fish pond. It is almost impossible to control their reproduction, and they pollute the water very quickly.
If you have observed the minimum dimensions of the pond mirror, taken a third under shallow water, planted plants there and correctly extended the pond, then the problem of self-cleaning of the pond is practically solved. However, in this case, periodic water filtration may be required. This task will be handled by a forced cleaning filter, the power of which is chosen based on the volume of water.
Since it does not need to be turned on so often, it is quite reasonable not to make the system built-in, and stop at the mobile version, installing and turning it on once a month.

There is another eco-friendly way to clean the water and the bottom of the pond, peeped from nature: to have a couple of voracious silver carps in the pond that feed on vegetation settling to the bottom and a family of ducks (“vacuum cleaner” for the surface of the water).

Anaerobic bacteria will save water from blooming in the pond. These drugs are presented in a large assortment. Type in the search «bacteria for the pond» and choose.

NUANCE: Bacteria actively absorb carbon and at the same time release carbon dioxide. Of course, it comes to the surface and further into the air, but … for a fish like carp, the concentration of carbon dioxide can become critical and even fatal.

Because biological products in the fish pond are used only in a couple (!) with aerator (diffuser, compressor).

The choice of this device is a separate «story».

There are surface and submersible models. Each is designed for a certain amount of water in the pond. This must be indicated in the compressor specifications.

To get rid of fallen leaves and an excess of soft algae floating in the depths, a large net with a long handle is needed.


IMPORTANT: despite the fact that for the winter the fish burrow into the bottom silt, it is necessary to ensure the access of oxygen to the surface of the water. For these purposes, holes are drilled in the surface of the ice and hollow reeds are inserted into them (for example, dry reed stalks harvested in autumn).

What else to read on the site:

Fish for a country pond

Commercial fish in a country pond are most often brought in for the same reason as chickens — so that there is something to serve at the table. Although, with a competent approach, the presence of a large reservoir and a commercial vein, this process can also be turned into a business. But before putting the fish into the pond, it is worth considering …

Borehole well and well wintering

An intermediate stage in the creation of an autonomous water supply for the site is the arrangement of a well (caisson) around the drilled well. Immediately after this, water is supplied to the points of consumption.

Not all dachas look like a traditional residential building with all the attributes of comfort. But after all, not everyone is intended for permanent residence … The term “garden house” is more suitable for many of them, they are so miniature. However, whatever the parameters of this building, if …

I decided to touch on the topic of a mini-reservoir for swimming, because for me it is relevant I am faced with a choice: to plan the construction of a swimming lane or a mini-pool the size of a bath. Just a swimming pool in the yard (and this is my personal opinion) I consider it an unreasonable luxury …


Добавить комментарий