How to make a concrete cellar with your own hands
Making a concrete cellar with your own hands
The subtleties of choosing the design of a concrete cellar with your own hands. Concrete work, ventilation installation and basement insulation. Each house, created on an individual project, is equipped with a basement for storing its crops on the site.
The developer must know how to carry out preparatory work, how to choose a structure, pour walls / floors / ceilings with their own hands, and also how to perform calculations. A rather important point is the insulation work in the underground structure, on which the durability of the building depends.
Features of pouring a concrete cellar (step by step plan)
The basement is located under the soil, and therefore it is worth strengthening all sides of the pressure, correctly pouring the ceiling structure. To install a concrete basement, you need to choose a place, calculate the depth, wall / ceiling thickness, and also protect the block from outside influences. You should learn about all the subtleties before doing such work.
What you should know about the cellar before the construction process
The first step is a place for a cellar, and at the same time it should be close to the house, ideally on a hill (to protect against the ingress of melt / sewage). Before planning a building, you need to know the location of groundwater. Before carrying out work, it is worth determining:
- The cost of purchasing building materials.
- If the storage will be placed under the building, then it is required to calculate the thickness of the walls and the shape of the ceiling.
- A convenient place for construction (the basement is built for long-term operation).
- Quality and quantity of rebar.
- Availability of materials and tools for construction.
- The size of the pit, taking into account the formwork for pouring.
- Pit depth.
These are the main requirements and the approximate time for preparation work; builders need to know to dry the fill. To build a cellar out of concrete with your own hands, you need at least average building skills.
Which concrete structure to choose?
The main criterion for choosing a design is the climatic zone, the depth of groundwater, and even lower temperatures in winter. Storage for a country house or country cellar is also taken into account. It is also worth considering the area of \u200b\u200bthe site, as well as the presence of other buildings, laid communications. There are several options for building such a repository:
- Under a private house.
- Standing separately.
- Deepening by 50%.
You can also order a ready-made concrete square cellar or a prefabricated panel structure. Construction organizations provide these varieties of structures. Usually, all home owners build concrete storage facilities with their own hands, and also “pour out” a monolithic block.
Pouring a monolithic structure with your own hands has various advantages:
- The exit with steps is placed at your discretion.
- Any area.
- You can use river gravel and sand of different fractions.
- The vault, made in the arches, is conveniently poured with concrete, and yet water does not collect on it.
- Durability and reliability.
After creating the ceiling in the form of an arch, you need to make an embankment for insulation with the help of excavated earth. Using the latest technology, a monolithic concrete caisson for underground cellars is produced. It is made of hydroconcrete with installed fittings. The caisson is made of a pair of parts that are hermetically connected during installation. The ready-made concrete cellar has a standard ventilation system. You can use the proposed novelties — plastic caissons. They do not have such a large area (from 3 to 4 squares), which is quite appropriate for a summer residence. The box is made of food or sealed fiberglass. The thickness of the container walls is 1.3 cm, different options are supplemented with stiffeners.
Prefabricated concrete storage has many advantages:
- Ideal ventilation.
- The material is not subject to corrosion, mold, fungal colonies and rodents.
- It is convenient and safe in terms of maintenance.
- It does not need to be insulated and generally equipped.
For the installation of a monolithic concrete cellar, it is necessary to prepare a foundation pit in advance, which is 0.2 meters wider than the finished structure. The bottom is carefully leveled and rammed. By means of a crane, the box is placed in a pit, and then it is covered with soil around the perimeter and rammed. Earth is poured onto the surface and compacted again.
If the groundwater runs deep, then you need to collect basement buildings from factory slabs. To do this, it is worth digging a pit according to the dimensions of the plates, as well as an area for the entrance structure with steps. In one plate it is worth cutting holes for the front door. The ceiling is also made of tiles. The joints should be filled with cement mortar, and the steps and walls at the entrance are laid out of brick or block.
How to build a monolithic cellar
Each type of building a basement has its own advantages and disadvantages, but at the same time, the most reliable construction of a monolithic type. Concrete is very strong and durable, not the most costly in finance. The weight of the filled box does not make it possible to lift it with groundwater or destroy it under the influence of soil pressure. Such sides became an argument for the installation of a country cellar made of concrete. Filling the floor as a base is extremely important. With hermetic sealing of the seams between the walls and the floor, even with flooding, the room will be protected from moisture. The concrete floors in the basement bear 30% of the ground pressure on the vertical planes. The alignment of the entire structure begins with the markup.
Assigning the dimensions of the building
To make a concrete cellar, first you have to clear the site and level the site. With the help of a rope and pegs mark the contours of the pit. The popular size of the cellar is 2 * 2 meters, the depth is from 2.5 to 3 meters. It is necessary to perform calculations, supplement the size of the gentle entrance, and also designate the perimeter. If a concrete cellar is built under the house, then its area may correspond to the total area of \u200b\u200bthe building above it. The walls are poured taking into account the load of superstructures from above. Ceilings are designed taking into account the upper shelter for the floor and entrance.
The simplest and most reliable design for the southern area is a 50% deep basement with an extension near the entrance for the steps, and also with natural heat exchange from the ground. For the middle lane with ground freezing up to 1.5 meters, the ideal option for the cellar would be complete immersion and warming of the horizon from above.
The advantage of this method:
- The energy of the soil and properly equipped ventilation is sufficient to maintain the temperature regime.
- The excavated earth will lie on the basement roof so that the structure is insulated.
- Small expenses for digging a ditch.
The choice of the depth of construction will depend on the climate zone where the country house is located. You can dig a pit with your own hands, or you can get the bulk of the earth with an excavator, manually align the contours of the floor and walls (ideally at the building level). Keep in mind that the summer groundwater flow is the deepest, and therefore summer is the ideal time to build a storage facility underground.
How to assemble formwork
If you plan to make a floor screed, then you definitely need to make a seal and tamp. Fill in a layer of crushed stone or gravel with a thickness of 0.15 meters. Seal everything with an aqueous clay solution (the talker is diluted to a creamy consistency). If groundwater runs deep in winter, then you can not fill the clay floor with a cement solution. 2 layers of ruberoid are laid out on the clay seal, bituminous mastic is applied. The vertical sides also need to be isolated with roofing material, and the joints are covered with bitumen mastic. It is worth starting roofing laying from the upper layers, so that the bottom row lies on the edge of the previous one. With this laying, moisture will not begin to get to the surfaces of the building.
Reinforcement is laid out on the floor, and vertical-type reinforcement is fixed along the common perimeter for pouring walls and partitions. A concrete mortar of the M300 brand is poured over a site with a thickness of 5-7 cm. It takes 1 month for the floor to dry perfectly, and the first day after pouring the cement screed, everything should be sprinkled with dry cement to get the effect of «iron». After everything is completely dry, you can begin to design the formwork for pouring vertical planes.
How to build walls
Since the reinforcement for the walls is fixed when the floor is poured, it is necessary to put together a plank formwork. It is strengthened with bars and struts, and then a partition for the entrance is installed in the designated place. The partition is made of formwork for pouring concrete, fixed reinforcement in the floor, and a doorway at a height of 0.15 meters from the floor surface. Concrete is poured in 2 approaches, evenly along the total perimeter to a height of 1 meter. 3 days after the lower layer has solidified, the walls are supplemented to the ground level. After 3-4 days, the formwork is removed to 100% drying. After that, the surface should be leveled, and the sags or seams should be cut off with an angle grinder using a diamond disc. After completing the work on the wall pouring, a formwork is installed for pouring the entrance steps.
Next, the concrete ceiling should be poured. You will need recommendations from experienced builders so that the concrete structure does not begin to collapse under the weight. To do this, plank or OSB structures are used, which are laid on a vertical concrete base, and then reinforced with additional supports. It is worth laying reinforcement along the general perimeter, and a reinforced mesh along the area. In the ceiling, the entrance and exit for ventilation are indicated, and the ceiling structure in the cellar must be filled with concrete with a layer of 0.1 measure. The surface should be covered with overlapping roofing material, and the joints should be covered with concrete. After you need to pour the soil taken out of the pit, make out a hill in the middle to drain water into the rain with a height of 0.5 meters. The surface should be sprinkled with gravel or turf is laid on top. If you follow all the technologies and rules, then the basement will serve reliably for a long time. With improperly equipped or poor ventilation, the screed may begin to gradually collapse under the influence of condensate. In this case, it will be necessary to repair and insulate the ceiling in the concrete cellar.
First, you should eliminate the cause, which will entail destruction:
- Dry the ceiling completely with a building hair dryer.
- Apply a hydrophobic impregnation to the surface.
- Insulate the surface with mineral wool with a thickness of 0.3 meters and an aluminum coating.
Repairs carried out after the causes have been eliminated will not need to be repeated again.
When everything is ready, what remains is the waterproofing of the concrete floor, both inside and out. In building markets, they buy various types of insulation material:
- Polysulfide sealants with a paste consistency that are applied with a spatula to surfaces. They will retain protective functions in the temperature range from -22 to +43 degrees.
- The building can be plastered with a concrete solution for waterproofing, which contains «liquid rubber».
- Mixtures with the addition of chemical additives (Hydrotex and Aquatron). The aqueous solution is applied with a sprayer, and it also enters the porous concrete surface by 0.1 meter, protecting the surface from a high level of humidity.
- Bituminous mastic, which is applied in 2 layers after heating the material with a thickness of 2-3 cm. Experienced craftsmen recommend powdering the coating with dry sand.
Choose one of the materials and apply at your discretion. Everyone can choose the configuration of the cellar, build the storage with their own hands, and then equip it at their discretion. The most important thing is that you do not violate the sequence of work, and also use high-quality material to build. The grocery cellar will serve without repair for a long time.