Well for giving
If you have a question about the water supply of the site, then first of all you should take a sample of water in neighboring wells (at least 1.5 liters from one point and take it for analysis. Which one and where it is done will be described later.
At the same time, ask your neighbors how deep their wells are, how many reinforced concrete rings and what height they used during construction.
If there is not enough information from neighbors or it is vague and unconvincing, it will not be superfluous to go to the local land administration and ask about the depth of the aquifer, the presence of quicksand and the composition of the soil for the presence of iron and lime.
Well DO NOT DIGif:
- the aquifer is located deep — below 30 m, or, conversely, too close (1 m or less),
- the soil on your site is swampy and contains mobile areas — quicksand,
- nearby limestone deposits or high iron content have been found in your area,
- analysis of water confirmed its unsuitability for human consumption.
With such indicators, it is better to make a well.
IMPORTANT TO KNOW: building a well is more expensive than drilling a well to the same depth.
Well DIGGING RECOMMENDEDif:
- you and your family will use the water from the well individually,
- water consumption will be small and seasonal (in this case, the well may simply silt up without the possibility of recovery),
- the chemical composition of water from neighboring wells gave positive results, while if the level of iron is still high, we recommend installing a water purification system, otherwise your plumbing will be constantly “rusty”.
A digging well with an aquifer depth of 3-4 m can be made with your own hands. But if you have to dig deeper, then you can’t do without the services of experienced specialists.
Professionals are firms that have a license from the Ministry of Construction or private traders with recommendations that can really be verified, engaged in this activity for more than one year. You know, there are such hereditary experts in the matter.
You cannot trust those who do not give guarantees (usually 1-2 years) or start digging on your own.
If it is wrong to determine the depth of the bottom of the well (the thickness of the aquifer), then in the end, with the money and effort spent, one day you may be left without water. Such phenomena are seasonal in nature and more often occur during the dry summer period, which is very inopportune.
There is such a delicate moment as a geological examination — take the time to find out from the drillers or local diggers if there is a quicksand on the site. Otherwise, the work will go to waste: moving water will irrevocably absorb the rings lowered into the mine and can cause an accident.
Rings installed by hacks without guide poles can subsequently warp or the well shaft will completely collapse.
Only a specialist, and only after he gets to the aquifer, will be able to determine the sufficient power of the pump (by calculating the debit of water in the well). The wrong choice can lead to a shortage of water or a permanent shutdown due to its critical level.
It is impossible to carry out excavation work on the arrangement of wells during the period of snowmelt, flood and rainy season. The water level will be higher than usual and you will not get a guaranteed water source during the drier period. Since ancient times, the digging of wells began on June 21 (on Ivan the Well)
That is why a good specialist will offer you to carry out such work in summer or winter.
The winter period is especially suitable for those who decide to apply to a specialized company. The technique will cause minimal damage to the frozen soil of your site.
In addition to the place of the closely occurring aquifer, there are SNiP and sanitary standards, according to which:
- the distance from the well to residential buildings should not be less than 5m
- the distance from the well to the compost pit, septic tank (toilet), livestock corral must be at least 20 m
- Drainage and sewer pipes should not run nearby
- this applies not only to structures on your site — consider the location of these objects with neighbors.
by the most the best option for water supply in a private house is a mine well made of reinforced concrete rings. And that’s why:
- a tree, whether oak or hornbeam, will last a maximum of 15-20 years at a cost twice as high as reinforced concrete,
- brick, if silicate, it can survive oak in terms of durability,
- red brick is an unreliable material for constant contact with water and will last less than silicate,
- the strength of reinforced concrete rings does not depend on time, and contact with water will only increase it.
Thus, the most reasonable option is the use of reinforced concrete blanks: rings and tablets on the bottom.
Rings are ordinary and with a lock. Some experts recommend using the usual ones, since you still have to seal the joints, and with a lock connection this can be problematic.
Although, maybe they are just too lazy to strain more than usual. After all, castle rings have their own a plus – no displacement during installation, and minus — a split of a part of the locking system (with inaccurate installation).
The disadvantage of concrete rings is their weight. For installation, special equipment is required: a crane or a winch.
A modern alternative to reinforced concrete rings is polymer-sand. Their obvious plus is the ease and speed of installation. Two people can do this job just fine. Minus — the cost.
DEVICE DIAGRAM a mine well made of concrete rings is as follows:
The upper part of the well may traditionally be crowned with a gate for manually raising the water with buckets. In this case, be sure to provide a protective cover for the top of the shaft. And even better, a lockable house: and intruders will not spoil the water, and the safety of children will be ensured.
Concerning SEALINGthen it is carried out from the outer part of the rings with various compositions:
- in the place of active water inflow at low water pressure, you can grease the seams with a mixture of liquid glass and cement, but keep in mind that it seizes instantly, so you need to work literally with lightning speed;
- quick-setting mixtures that help eliminate leaks in a matter of minutes include Glims gyro seal material (hardening time 1.5-5 minutes), which is recommended to be used in conjunction with a membrane Glims-VodoStor;
- in more «dry» layers, sealing is carried out with a mixture of cement with PVA, penetron, hydrolast, liquid glass without impurities;
- in the upper layers of the soil (3-4 rings), you can make a clay shutter around the body of the mine — coat it with a thick (about 10 cm) layer of clay without impurities;
- we recommend refusing to use tow and other natural materials, as they are prone to decay; if necessary, it is better to cut strips of hydrotextile.
Sealing the seams in the well is needed not only to eliminate leaks and outflow of water. It is especially important when, during the period of spring thaw and prolonged rains, water will gush from the upper layers of the soil (perched water) and the risk of spreading infection from fields, toilets, compost pits will increase.
For this reason, around the well they perform the so-called clay castle. What is it and how to do it. This type of waterproofing is not absolute, but it will protect the well, or rather, the water in it, from the influx of melt water directly from the upper layers in the soil.
For its arrangement, within a radius of 120-150 cm from the well, the soil is removed by at least 80 cm. At the same time, a slope from the well to the edges of the circle is arranged. The base is compacted and in three layers it is laid on it soaked for 3 days, mashed (this is important!) Clay.
The thickness of the layer is 10-12 cm, as soon as it dries (does not dry, but ceases to be wet), the second layer is laid, followed by the third.
This is the clay castle. Crumpled clay changes its properties and ceases to be moisture permeable. Melt water, colliding with this obstacle, rolls down to the edges of the castle and soaks into the ground, bypassing the walls of the well.
Digging a well just for the sake of a couple of buckets of clean water a day is somewhat unreasonable: today’s comfort requirements lie within the framework of daily water consumption in the amount of 130-400 liters per day per person. Do not apply by hand.
In order to make a conduit, a hole is drilled in the wall of the well according to the diameter of the pipe. The recommended depth of the conduit is below the freezing level of the soil.
Water can also be supplied directly to points of consumption, but this is only subject to a sufficient supply in the well itself.
However, if your needs are completely satisfied by a surface pump, the pipe will run underground in the same way, and the unit itself is best located in a basement with sound insulation, since at the time of operation, the noise of the motor can deliver a lot of discomfort.
- It is impossible to work alone when digging a mine — life is given to a person once.
- There may be no air at the bottom of the well, so you can’t go down without making sure that there is oxygen: light a piece of paper and throw it to the bottom — if it goes out without touching the water, you can’t go down, if it goes out from getting wet — the descent will be safe.
- Lifting buckets of soil to the surface is a dangerous moment for those below. Make sure that the container is forged and the handle or eye for it does not open under the mass of wet earth.
WATER TEST TO CLEAN
- The Sanitary and Epidemiological Station is in charge of checking the quality of water. For the sample, it is necessary to have a sample of freshly taken water in a volume of at least 1.5 liters.
- There is no need to carry out a general complete water analysis (except once after the first water intake).
- It is enough to do a test for hardness, nitrates, iron and manganese.
- Checking for bacteria and infections will cost about the same amount.
- Analysis for the presence of toxic substances should be carried out only if there is a good reason for this: a large agricultural farm nearby, a chemical plant, etc.
- Doing radioactive analysis does not make sense if there is no nuclear waste storage nearby.
- We recommend doing an annual water analysis according to points 1 and 2 for the purpose of preventive control.
The well should be cleaned if necessary. Water is pumped out of it, the walls are cleaned and washed, the cracks are caulked, the gravel-sand bottom layer is completely removed and replaced with a new one. This is done by specialists in compliance with safety standards.
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