How glass, metal, wood sandblasting equipment works
Today, even people who have nothing to do with industrial activity are faced with the concept of sandblasting. Equipment of this type is capable of solving a wide range of tasks. For example, when ordering a new wardrobe, you can hear from the master the phrase that the drawings on the mirror will be made by sandblasting. To perform certain works, it is assembled in different ways, has different dimensions, price. However, the general structure of the sandblaster remains unchanged.
The device and principle of operation of sandblasting
The principle of operation of any sandblasting installation lies in the impact of abrasive particles on the surface to be treated. Depending on the working mixture used, the generated mechanical force can vary from extremely weak to intensely impact.
There are different categories of sandblasting equipment. It could be classification:
- along the abrasive-carrying flow: flame, air or liquid;
- depending on the abrasive with which sandblasting works (plastic granules, glass beads, steel shot, powdered abrasives and much more);
- according to the engineering solution: ejector and pressure.
In the general case, the structural scheme of the sandblasting apparatus is quite simple. It contains a flow generator (air, liquid, combustible agent), a container with a working mixture, an exhaust tract and a gun, an operator’s tool. Cast additional equipment the receiver, automatic control and regulation, emergency operation mechanics, connecting and supply cables act. However, depending on the specific engineering solution, the main principles of constructing a structure may differ from each other.
Pressure sandblasting is the most simple. It is based on a container with an abrasive. Under air pressure (for simplicity, only such units will be considered):
- the abrasive in the storage hopper is mixed and enters the receiving chamber in a uniformly dispersed state;
- the working mixture is captured by the air flow and flows through the outlet hose to the gun.
The scheme of the pressure plant is simple. This provides not only equipment reliability and fault tolerance, but also high performance in combination with a wide range of abrasives available for use.
In the ejector installation, the capture of the abrasive mixture occurs as a result of the formation of low pressure in the intake area. The scheme works as follows:
- compressed air enters directly into the gun;
- atomizer-type design, as a result of the Bernoulli effect, forms a low pressure in the intake tube;
- the abrasive mixture in the area of the air intake tube into the container is sucked into the outlet hose and enters the gun.
Important! The ejector installation, in comparison with the pressure one, is characterized by lower productivity. However, it is more compact (with equal performance), allows you to carry out fine work.
The characteristics of the outlet hose and gun nozzle play an important role in the parameters of the surface treatment process. This statement is true for any type of equipment. By increasing the diameter of the hose, a larger amount of the working mixture can be supplied. To pass it, a nozzle of considerable diameter is required. However, this will reduce the speed of the particles and, consequently, the speed and intensity of processing the target surface. Therefore, in practice, it is necessary to carefully balance the ratio of the diameters of the nozzle and the supply hose in order to achieve optimal results.
Naturally, sandblasting installations vary in size and performance. For example, low-power are compact and are used in small workshops. For the transportation of medium-sized vehicles, wheeled vehicles are used; such sandblasting will be required for processing the walls of buildings or metal structures. The most powerful class of equipment is usually used in a stationary, multi-operator environment in an industrial environment.
General safety rules for sandblasting
Sandblasting must be carried out in compliance with all safety rules. The operator in the area of action is inevitably at risk. Chief imprisoned in release of fine dust into the air, silicon when working with sand, different when using other abrasives. In addition to residues formed by the destruction of the applied mixture, the smallest particles of the destroyed coating inevitably enter the air. This can be the most diverse set of substances, ranging from scale to toxic agents of paints and varnishes.
It is necessary to work with sandblasting with the obligatory observance of basic safety rules.
- The operator must use special protective suit with a respiratory maskreliably isolating a person from the environment.
- Work with a sandblaster is only permitted for persons over 18 years of age.
- In cases where cleaning is carried out in closed chambers, the operators involved in the task should use hose masks. It is allowed to use closed masks with air supply outside the working room. Also, for protection, operators can use spacesuits with an air filtration system from oil vapors and dust.
- Closed rooms for working with sandblasting equipment must be equipped with forced ventilation systems.
- When working at height when cleaning the walls of buildings use of safety equipment is mandatory.
Important! Before starting work, the operator carefully checks the condition of the hoses, grounding the sandblaster to neutralize static electricity, inspects the power wires and evaluates the condition of the injection unit.
The employee must pass safety training. For sandblasting machines, the field of knowledge includes not only information about the procedure for performing work with the apparatus in various conditions. Plant operators are required to be familiar with the safety regulations for working with high-pressure cylinders. In industrial conditions, the enterprise conducts quarterly re-training of personnel on labor protection. An annual inspection of buildings of safety precautions when working with sandblasting equipment is also organized. Medical examination for employed personnel is carried out once a year.
Body work on metal with a sandblaster
Sandblasting equipment is widely used in service stations and workshops engaged in painting and body repair. However, installations for such work must meet a number of criteria:
- use a wide range of abrasives for one or another effect on coatings;
- provide processing without damaging the metal;
- be able to adjust the speed and performance of work.
In practice, today both ordinary sand is used as an abrasive material, as well as special mixtures. Rise in popularity show special granulesthat contain soda and additives. After processing the metal with such means, it is not only cleaned of paint, but also receives protection against corrosion.
Important! The use of any abrasive causes the release of dust hazardous for breathing. In a small workshop, this can be a problem. Therefore, today, blasting devices are used to process a car body, using carbon dioxide snow as an abrasive.
The operation of such devices is distinguished not only by gentle cleaning of rims or body elements, but also by low cost. The source of the working mixture and at the same time the flow generator in installations of this class is liquid acid bottle. Carbon dioxide blasting is called dustless cleaning. For example, sandblasting discs can be carried out in a small workshop, provided that forced ventilation is provided to remove gas.
Advice! To avoid problems with carbon dioxide poisoning, it is recommended to clean metal parts outdoors.
Wood is a rather fragile material. Even with a long service life, the surface of a log or board is destroyed. Local areas of decay, delamination, and drying are formed. A house made of logs or trimmed with wooden elements begins to look unaesthetic. The same can be said about the many products made from a popular natural material.
To return the original appearance of the walls or parts allows wood sandblasting. Wherein:
- just a huge amount of dust is released;
- work is noisy;
- there is a lot of rubbish left.
Advice! If sandblasting is planned for the log house, it is recommended to hire specialists to carry out such work. They have experience in choosing the abrasive fraction to achieve a quality end result and high productivity. Professionals use good sandblasting equipment.
Cleaning the surface of a tree with an abrasive can be carried out:
- for restoration (restoration) of the surface of the material, removal of traces of decay, drying, discoloration;
- to prepare the tree for the application of antiseptics or paints and varnishes.
Separately, it is worth considering such sandblasting woodwork as blanching. This is an operation, as a result of which the material is artificially aged, the appearance of rough processing is formed, the texture appears. When working in art workshops, to protect against the release of large amounts of dust, blanching is performed in small sealed chambers equipped with ventilation units.
In the course of sandblasting wood, fairly soft abrasives with a high soda content are used. In this way, high environmental safety of the treated surface is achieved. In addition, soda does not affect the color of wood, texture, and can be used even in restoration work after fires.
Matting — a very popular way of processing glass. Its main advantage: fingerprints are not visible on the surface of the material. With careful processing, such a level of roughness is achieved that frosted glass does not collect dust and dirt.
Equipment for sandblasting glass operates according to the classical scheme. The abrasive ejected at high speed from the gun nozzle (or a special head in automated devices) knocks out the smallest particles from the glass surface. As a result, it becomes rough and acquires a lower light transmission index.
Modern glass sandblasting equipment is capable of:
- matting large areas or local, limited areas;
- work with mirrors, removing reflective amalgam;
- create patterns on the surface of the material.
Sandblaster for glass with program control capable of creating complex, multi-shaded images. This is achieved by a different number of head passes over individual areas of the picture. Such glass matting can be carried out even on site at the customer’s site.
On a note! Mobile sandblasting on glass works according to the hydraulic scheme. Purified water acts as the carrier body of the abrasive mixture. Glass matting by this method does not form hazardous dust in the air, therefore it can be carried out in any room.
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Sandblasting wall cleaning technology
Facade surface cleaning allows both removing dirt and old paint, as well as restoring the surface or preparing it for applying a coating with certain characteristics. Such processing class considered hazardous. And this statement is true.
- During the cleaning of walls, fences, facades with sandblasters, a large amount of silicon dust is released into the air, which is dangerous for the lungs.
- Not only the personnel involved in the work are exposed to danger, but also all people who are in the area adjacent to the cleaning zone. These are passers-by, residents of neighboring houses.
- Work on the facade is often associated with the danger of falling from a height.
The principle of cleaning the facade surface is the destruction of contaminants, which produces a shock effect of abrasive particles accelerated by the installation to 650 km/h or more. Each operator working with sandblasting equipment must be instructed in safety precautions.
To protect peoplelocated near the cleaning zone, apply:
- vacuum-type installations that remove abrasive residues and dust from the impact area immediately after it;
- partially open cells in which personnel work.
It is worth talking about the last measure of protection in more detail. Partially closed chamber — this is, roughly, a parallelepiped without one face. It is equipped with a ventilation system. By placing the camera against a separate segment of the wall and facade, the staff performs sandblasting using protective measures (masks, suits, gas masks, space suits). There is no damage to the environment and people near the work area, or its impact is minimal.
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As a conclusion
You should not think that sandblasting or processing operations can be carried out in any room, the first unit that caught your eye and was bought for little money. To achieve high-quality results, it is necessary to carefully select the appropriate equipment.
Important! Mandatory organization of special places of work (inhabited and uninhabited cells) will allow not to harm the personal health and well-being of others. It is worth remembering: if there is not enough knowledge, skills, equipment, it is worth hiring professionals to perform certain operations using sandblasting.
The best sandblasters of 2018
Sandblaster AE&T T06505 19 l.
Sandblaster 17 l GARWIN 8866101
N33235 Sandblasting chamber 90l. AE&T T06301 desktop
JTC-5324 Sandblaster, 1/2″ hose, max. pressure 250PSI, volume 38l.
Sandblasting gun Fubag Sbg142/3
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