what it is, what it consists of, types, how to choose
How to clean a brick wall from mold and lichen growths? How to remove corrosion from metal pipes and structures? How to frost glass? There is one simple answer to these and many other questions. A modern sandblaster, depending on the technical characteristics, is capable of fine and coarse cleaning, as well as specific types of processing.
What is sandblasting, its scope
Equipment for sandblasting today can be found in the shops of enterprises of various kinds of activity. Here is a short list of examples of usage:
- companies engaged in glass processing, matting, forming complex patterns on the surface;
- engraving workshops;
- enterprises engaged in work with pipelines;
- electroplating workshops;
- Service stations that provide body painting services and repair of car metal structures.
Sandblasting is needed in shipyards, in small art workshops for working with wood, for public utilities engaged in cleaning the facades of buildings and other structures.
Important! It is quite difficult to say exactly how the sandblasting machine looks like. This may be a small chamber, a large isolated room for the work of one or more operators. Depending on the principle of operation, the list composition of the functional blocks of the installation also differs.
However, the general mechanics of operation of all installations without exception remains unchanged. Sandblasting impacts the target surface with an abrasive that is ejected at great speed. Particles literally tear off scale and rust from metal, knock out small grains of glass. Some types of processing (for example, with steel balls) make it possible to obtain the effect of leveling the surface and its shock strengthening.
Structural elements of sandblasting
Regardless of the size of a particular engineering solution, the sandblasting machine conditionally consists of the following parts:
- storage tank-receiver for stabilization of air supply parameters;
- gun and nozzle for sandblaster, serving as a guiding circuit for the flow of ejected particles;
- container with abrasive;
- block of automatic regulation of air supply pressure;
- automatic emergency shutdown when, for example, the gun falls to the ground or depressurization of the sandblasting chamber;
- compressor control unit.
Ready-made air-abrasive mixture for the gun delivers a hose. The final performance of the entire installation depends on its diameter.
The characteristics of the individual parts of the sandblast may differ depending on the tasks to be solved with the help of one or another modification. The main problem of the installation is that when the abrasive is ejected by the nozzle, the latter wears out a lot. Therefore, reliable, wear-resistant materials are used. Sandblasting gun with ceramic nozzle is very popular, showing good durability results.
Venturi nozzle is a special tip for sandblasting, evenly distributing the abrasive over a large area with virtually no reduction in particle speed. Such a nozzle cannot be made from ceramics. For the manufacture of the element, tungsten carbide and other durable alloys are used. The Venturi nozzle with an operating time of 400 hours (depending on the material) pays for itself, as it reduces abrasive consumption by up to 40%.
Already from the description of only two different nodes with the same purpose, it becomes clear how many options for sandblasting equipment are. And each of them is designed for the optimal solution of individual tasks.
Types of sandblasting equipment
Sandblasting equipment can be divided into several category grids. The first classification is by camera type.
- closed chamber can be conditionally called hermetic. These are stationary devices of various sizes.
- open chamber allows you to remove restrictions on the size of the object for processing. In simple terms, the box with the open side can be moved over the target area for consistent cleaning.
The second classification division concerns human presence in the work area. Cells can be uninhabited (for example, equipped with robotic arms or rubber gloves) and habitable, where one or more operators directly work.
The third division — according to the method of formation of the air-abrasive mixture and its supply to the point of release.
- Sandblaster pressure type — the most common class of equipment. The units are distinguished by high productivity and a wide range of abrasives available for use. The working mixture is prepared in an external tank and is fed to the gun through one hose.
- Ejector type sandblasters form the working mixture directly in the gun. The supply of air and abrasive occurs through different hoses. The ejector equipment can handle only small particles with a size of up to 1.2 mm, and performs a rather delicate cleaning.
are a separate class vacuum installations. They can be both pressure and ejector.
Important! The devices got their name because of the mechanics of vacuum formation in the zone of ejection of the working mixture. The abrasive is collected immediately after use. As a result, dust emissions to the environment are minimized.
Another classification division is according to the type and parameters of the abrasive carrier. Separated into separate classes:
- air equipment powered by a compressor;
- a device for wet sandblasting, operating with water-abrasive compositions or water under significant pressure;
- fire (thermal) equipment, in which the abrasive moves in a jet stream of hot gases formed as a result of the combustion of liquid fuel;
- blasting machines operating with jets of air, sometimes with the addition of a soft abrasive, for example, plastic granules, soda.
The last category according to the type of abrasive flow carrier is equipment for cryogenic blasting. Here, the surface is cleaned using particles of carbon dioxide ice moving at great speed. The result is a very delicate, professional character of fine workmanship and zero dust emission to the environment.
Sandblasting selection criteria
It is worth listing typical tasks for which it may be necessary to choose a sandblasting machine:
- removal of coatings;
- surface leveling or, conversely, the creation of fine or artistic roughness;
- degreasing before electroplating;
- removal of traces of corrosion, dirt, soot, scale, slagging;
- artificial aging;
- engraving of inscriptions and patterns.
If there is no experience with sandblasting, it is better turn to specialists for advice on equipment selection. The analysis takes into account:
- the number of places for operators to work or outlet hoses for supplying the working mixture;
- the volume of the abrasive container, which directly regulates the downtime of the installation;
- availability of remote control for operation in uninhabited cells;
- abrasive flow carrier;
- productivity of the sandblasting machine (pressure, ejector);
- available abrasive particle sizes and nature;
- parameters of nozzles used.
As a recommendation, it is worth saying the following: you do not need to save on equipment, expecting to modify it in the future.
Advice! Sandblasting is better to buy with a margin for a number of parameters. For example, provide for the use of several types of nozzles, purchase additional tanks for quick replacement of abrasive for different jobs.
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The most popular models of sandblasters in 2018
Sandblaster Sorokin 10.1 19 l
Sandblaster AE&T T06505
Sandblasting gun Wester Ssp-10
Sandblasting gun Metabo Ssp 1000 (601569000)
Sandblaster Inforce S 4020B